boeing 747 deaths

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The aircraft flew for the first time on September 9, 2006 in a test flight. The 747-8F made its maiden flight on February 8, 2010. ", "Historic 747 reaches grim end in South Korea", James Bond Casino Royale modified Boeing 747-XXX on show ahead of movie première, "Swedish Hotel Fashioned From An Old Jumbo Jet", "Old PIA plane takes new flight as airport security turns it into restaurant: reports", "ASF says its PIA jumbo jet 'restaurant' actually an officers' mess", "Malibu 'Wing House' made of 747 plane parts", "The wing house – a house made out of an old Boeing 747", "747-8 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning", "Premiere of Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental", "Boeing 747-8 technical description & cutaway", "Statistical Data for the Boeing-747-400 Aircraft in Commercial Operations", "Boeing revises "obsolete" performance assumptions", "The most iconic aircraft in film history", "Pre-fatigued 2219-T87 and 6061-T6 aluminium alloys. In January 2004, Boeing and Cathay Pacific launched the Boeing 747-400 Special Freighter program,[187] later referred to as the Boeing Converted Freighter (BCF), to modify passenger 747-400s for cargo use. [8] [166] After being made standard on the 747-300, the SUD was offered as a retrofit, and as an option to earlier variants still in-production. The 747 entered service on January 22, 1970, on Pan Am's New York–London route;[64] the flight had been planned for the evening of January 21, but engine overheating made the original aircraft unusable. ", "Boeing Commits To Produce New Longer-Range 767-400ER. The aircraft was to carry 295 passengers a range of 8,000 nmi (9,200 mi; 15,000 km). [230], The 747-500X concept featured an increased fuselage length of 18 ft (5.5 m) to 250 ft (76.2 m) long, and the aircraft was to carry 462 passengers over a range up to 8,700 nautical miles (10,000 mi, 16,100 km), with a gross weight of over 1.0 Mlb (450 tonnes). [28] (A different configuration that had been considered in order to keep the flight deck out of the way for freight loading had the pilots below the passengers, and was dubbed the "anteater". [203], The passenger version, named 747-8 Intercontinental or 747-8I, is designed to carry up to 467 passengers in a 3-class configuration and fly more than 8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at Mach 0.855. Allen later said, "It was really too large a project for us. ", "Boeing: Commercial Airplanes - 747 Fun Facts", "Japan Airlines To Receive 100th Boeing 747 Aircraft. However, a particularly severe high-speed flutter problem was solved only by inserting depleted uranium counterweights as ballast in the outboard engine nacelles of the early 747s. A year later, Boeing switched from the 747X studies to pursue the Sonic Cruiser,[95] and after the Sonic Cruiser program was put on hold, the 787 Dreamliner. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. [82] The -200 model followed in 1971, featuring more powerful engines and a higher MTOW. The demand for longer range aircraft with increased payload quickly led to the improved -200, which featured more powerful engines, increased MTOW, and greater range than the -100. [182] The 747-400D was built for short-range operations with maximum seating for 624. The SP's flaps used a simplified single-slotted configuration. The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner and cargo aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States. It entered service in 1972 with Lufthansa. Boeing has reported costs of more than $20 billion associated with the 737 Max crisis. [302], Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era, American wide-body long–range commercial jet aircraft, For design details of a particular generation, see, Further developments and end of production, split numbers denote different limits depending on exit types installed, Mecham, M. "In review: 747, Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation. ", Smith, Bruce A. The Boeing 747 operated on a cargo flight from Dubai to Düsseldorf on behalf of Emirates. [84]:86 The 300 series resulted from Boeing studies to increase the seating capacity of the 747, during which modifications such as fuselage plugs and extending the upper deck over the entire length of the fuselage were rejected. [230] The 747-600X concept featured a greater stretch to 279 ft (85 m) with seating for 548 passengers, a range of up to 7,700 nmi (8,900 mi, 14,300 km), and a gross weight of 1.2 Mlb (540 tonnes). [110], On July 27, 2016, in its quarterly report to the Securities and Exchange Commission, Boeing discussed the potential termination of 747 production due to insufficient demand and market for the aircraft. [151] Iran Air is the last civil operator of the type; its final 747-SP (EP-IAC) was to be retired in June 2016. This page was last edited on 22 February 2021, at 12:19. [81] Minor aerodynamic changes allowed the -300's cruise speed to reach Mach 0.85 compared with Mach 0.84 on the -200 and -100 models, while retaining the same takeoff weight. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being widely introduced at about the same time. In 1987, Boeing re-opened the 747SP production line after five years to build one last 747SP for an order by the United Arab Emirates government. [188], In March 2007, Boeing announced that it had no plans to produce further passenger versions of the -400. [243], In July 2020, British Airways announced that it was retiring its 747 fleet. Most problematic was evacuation from the aircraft's upper deck; instead of using a conventional slide, volunteer passengers escaped by using a harness attached to a reel. 20770/213 – 747-2B5B registration HL7463 at Jeongseok Aviation Center, Jeju, South Korea. The option of RB211-524B engines was announced on June 17, 1975. On December 13, 1969 a test aircraft was being taken to have test equipment removed and a cabin installed when pilot Ralph C. Cokely undershot the airport's short runway. [152][153], While the 747-100 powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3A engines offered enough payload and range for medium-haul operations, it was marginal for long-haul route sectors. The new 747-8 freighters will replace AirBridgeCargo's current 747-400 aircraft and expand the airline's fleet and will be acquired through a mix of direct purchases and leasing over the next six years, Boeing said. The en route part of the flight was uneventful.The flight crew established radio contact with Düsseldorf Radar at 05:43. The 747X did not make it beyond the drawing board, but the 747-400X being developed concurrently moved into production to become the 747-400ER.[235]. [189] The last passenger version of the 747-400 was delivered in April 2005 to China Airlines. [205] The 747-8 has surpassed the Airbus A340-600 as the world's longest airliner. [155], The 747-200B was the basic passenger version, with increased fuel capacity and more powerful engines; it entered service in February 1971. [142][143] Unlike the original -100, the -100B was offered with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7A, General Electric CF6-50, or Rolls-Royce RB211-524 engines. The 747-200 soon followed, with its launch in 1968. [297][298] Appearing in over 300 film productions[299] the 747 is one of the most widely depicted civilian aircraft and is considered by many as one of the most iconic in film history. ", "Boeing plans propfan engines for bigger jumbos in 1990s", "Impact of New Large Aircraft on Airport Design (PDF). [276] The airplane also appears frequently in the television series Top Gear, which is filmed at Dunsfold. [4], The 747-100B model was developed from the -100SR, using its stronger airframe and landing gear design. ", "Uranium Pollution from the Amsterdam 1992 Plane Crash. ", "Boeing and Cathay Pacific Airways Launch 747-400 Special Freighter. [238] Although the 747-400XQLR did not move to production, many of its features were used for the 747 Advanced, which has now been launched as the 747-8. ", "Customer Symposium Highlights Future Boeing 747 Models. [70] Nonetheless, many flag-carriers purchased the 747 due to its prestige "even if it made no sense economically" to operate. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner, already assigned the model number 747. [147] In addition to airline use, one 747SP was modified for the NASA/German Aerospace Center SOFIA experiment. Its wings have a high sweep angle of 37.5 degrees for a fast, efficient cruise speed[27] of Mach 0.84 to 0.88, depending on the variant. The 747's right, outer landing gear was torn off and two engine nacelles were damaged. [93] The new variants would have cost more than US$5 billion to develop,[93] and interest was not sufficient to launch the program. [150] A total of 45 747SPs were built,[4] with the 44th 747SP delivered on August 30, 1982. [180], The passenger version first entered service in February 1989 with launch customer Northwest Airlines on the Minneapolis to Phoenix route. [77], International flights bypassing traditional hub airports and landing at smaller cities became more common throughout the 1980s, thus eroding the 747's original market. [42] To level the site, more than four million cubic yards (three million cubic meters) of earth had to be moved. [164] As of July 2019[update], five 747-200s remain in service as freighters. The -100BSR first flew on November 3, 1978, with first delivery to All Nippon Airways (ANA) on December 21, 1978. Subsequent test evacuations achieved the 90-second goal but caused more injuries. Boeing delivered 26 jets in January, logging one of its best months since the grounding of the 737 Max in March 2019. [185] The combi version entered service in September 1989 with KLM, while the freighter version entered service in November 1993 with Cargolux. On August 4, 1983, Pan Am Flight 73, a 747-100, struck a VASI light installation and its concrete base while taking off at Karachi International Airport, causing the nose gear to collapse backwards to the left, resulting in total destruction of the VASI light installation and damage to the forward cargo hold, floor of the first class section and the stairway leading to the upper deck. [116] On July 29, 2020, Boeing confirmed that the final 747 would be delivered in 2022 as a result of "current market dynamics and outlook" stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, according to CEO David Calhoun. 7 May 1990. The upper deck was stretched more on the 747−8. [93] The proposed models would have combined the 747's fuselage with a new 251 ft (77 m) span wing derived from the 777. [76] Later, Delta acquired 747s again in 2008 as part of its merger with Northwest Airlines, although it retired the 747-400 fleet in December 2017. The main gear are redundant so that landing can be performed on two opposing landing gears if the others are not functioning properly. On December 22, 2013, the right wing on British Airways Flight 34, a Boeing 747-436 registered as G-BNLL, struck a building at, On March 19, 2015, 7O-YMN, a 747-SP used by the president of Yemen, was damaged by gunfire from troops loyal to deposed president, On August 27th,2020, A Boeing 747-SP belonging to, This page was last edited on 13 February 2021, at 01:25. [176] The 747-400 introduced a new glass cockpit designed for a flight crew of two instead of three, with a reduction in the number of dials, gauges and knobs from 971 to 365 through the use of electronics. Lawrence, Philip K. and David Weldon Thornton. [24] The original design included a full-length double-deck fuselage with eight-across seating and two aisles on the lower deck and seven-across seating and two aisles on the upper deck. [239], As of July 2019[update], there were 462 Boeing 747s in airline service, with Atlas Air and British Airways being the largest operators with 33 747-400s each. Boeing tops Airbus for deliveries in January as 737 Max returns; timing set for final 747 The News Tribune, Washington 19:36 9-Feb-21 Boeing takes off with 26 deliveries after 737 MAX return to skies Al Jazeera 17:12 9-Feb-21 [149], The 747SP was granted a supplemental certificate on February 4, 1976 and entered service with launch customers Pan Am and Iran Air that same year. Of the 61 Boeing 747 aircraft losses, 32 resulted in no loss of life; in one, a … [53][54], The flight test program was hampered by problems with the 747's JT9D engines. [5][6] 747s have been involved in accidents resulting in the highest death toll of any aviation accident, the highest death toll of any single airplane accident and the highest death toll of a mid-air collision, although, as with most airliner accidents, the roots of causation in these incidents involved a confluence of multiple factors which rarely could be ascribed to flaws with the 747's design or its flying characteristics. [62] When economic problems in the US and other countries after the 1973 oil crisis led to reduced passenger traffic, several airlines found they did not have enough passengers to fly the 747 economically, and they replaced them with the smaller and recently introduced McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijet wide bodies[74] (and later the 767 and A300/A310 twinjets). [181], The -400 was offered in passenger (-400), freighter (-400F), combi (-400M), domestic (-400D), extended range passenger (-400ER), and extended range freighter (-400ERF) versions. [229] However, airlines were not interested in the project and it was canceled in 1988 in favor of the 777. [1], As Boeing did not have a plant large enough to assemble the giant airliner, they chose to build a new plant. Ultimately, the 747-8 was announced in 2005. "Till 8:00 AM 13 … [105] The 1,500th Boeing 747 was delivered in June 2014 to Lufthansa. Other changes included adding more powerful engines and increasing the number of tires from two to four on the nose landing gear and from 16 to 20 on the main landing gear. [137] Overall, twenty-nine 747SRs were built. ", "Boeing Puts Last Dreamlifter In Service", "Boeing 747 Dreamlifter Achieves FAA Certification. ", "747-8F and 787 delivery dates come into focus", "Boeing 747-8I Set For Pre-Delivery Evaluation Flights In Germany", "The White House cuts $3.9 billion deal with Boeing for two new Air Force Ones", "Aboard America's Doomsday command and control plane", "Airborne Laser returns for more testing", "NASA Armstrong Fact Sheet: Shuttle Carrier Aircraft", "KC-33A: Closing the Aerial Refuelling and Strategic Air Mobility Gaps (PDF). [121][122], The 747 has redundant structures along with four redundant hydraulic systems and four main landing gears each with four wheels; these provide a good spread of support on the ground and safety in case of tire blow-outs. [97], After several variants were proposed but later abandoned, some industry observers became skeptical of new aircraft proposals from Boeing. [38] Developing the aircraft was such a technical and financial challenge that management was said to have "bet the company" when it started the project. [242], As the IATA forecast an increase in air freight from 4% to 5% in 2018 fuelled by booming trade for time-sensitive goods, from smartphones to fresh flowers, demand for freighters is strong while passenger 747s are phased out. Its range has increased from 5,300 nautical miles (6,100 mi, 9,800 km) on the -100 to 8,000 nmi (9,200 mi, 14,815 km) on the -8I. [158], The combi aircraft model, the 747-200M, could carry freight in the rear section of the main deck via a side cargo door. No 747s were sold to any American carrier for almost three years. VT-EBO. ", "GE's CF6 Engine Models Tailored For Boeing's 747-400XQLR Wide-Body. Boeing, Douglas, and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. [199] As on previous 747 freighters, the 747-8F features an overhead nose-door and a side-door on the main deck plus a side-door on the lower deck ("belly") to aid loading and unloading. [10] Boeing would carry the nose door and raised cockpit concepts over to the design of the 747. [34][35] The wing's complex three-part flaps increase wing area by 21 percent and lift by 90 percent when fully deployed compared to their non-deployed configuration. Air France, Air India, Pakistan International Airlines, and Qantas were some of the last major carriers to operate the 747-300. Years before the crash of Lion Air Flight 610 killed 189 people, a Boeing pilot struggled for 10 seconds with the same new system on the 737 Max jet … On September 30, 1968, the first 747 was rolled out of the custom-built Everett Plant, the largest building in the world by volume. [226], In January 1986, Boeing outlined preliminary studies to build a larger, ultra-long haul version named the 747-500, which would enter service in the mid- to late-1990s. A total of 694 of the 747-400 series aircraft were delivered. [23], Ultimately, the high-winged CX-HLS Boeing design was not used for the 747, although technologies developed for their bid had an influence. As a derivative of the already common 747-400, the 747-8 has the economic benefit of similar training and interchangeable parts. [202] The -8F was first delivered to Cargolux on October 12, 2011. [13], The 747 was conceived while air travel was increasing in the 1960s. [125][126] This fifth engine mount point is also used by Virgin Orbit's LauncherOne program. [81][173] While some -300 customers continued operating the type, several large carriers replaced their 747-300s with 747-400s. ", "First 747-400 Boeing Converted Freighter Redelivered to Cathay Pacific. [124], For transportation of spare engines, the 747 can accommodate a non-functioning fifth-pod engine under the aircraft's port wing between the inner functioning engine and the fuselage. Boeing 747 orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year): Orders and deliveries through the end of January 2021, As of October 2020, the 747 has been involved in 166 aviation accidents and incidents,[248] including 63 accidents and hull losses[249] causing 3746 fatalities. [66] After the aircraft's introduction with Pan Am, other airlines that had bought the 747 to stay competitive began to put their own 747s into service. [14] The era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. The 747-300 was launched in 1980 and was followed by the 747-400 in 1985. General Electric had pioneered the concept but was committed to developing the engine for the C-5 Galaxy and did not enter the commercial market until later. The first 747-400BCF was redelivered in December 2005. Originally flown commercially by Pan Am as N747PA, Clipper Juan T. Trippe, and repaired for service following a tailstrike, it stayed with the airline until its bankruptcy. Later, as airlines began to use the upper deck for premium passenger seating instead of lounge space, Boeing offered an upper deck with ten windows on either side as an option. [90] Generally, the 747-400 held between 416 and 524 passengers. Boeing built an unusual training device known as "Waddell's Wagon" (named for a 747 test pilot, Jack Waddell) that consisted of a mock-up cockpit mounted on the roof of a truck. The upper deck has a 3–3 seat arrangement in economy class and a 2–2 layout in first class.[120]. In April 1966, Pan Am ordered 25 747-100 aircraft and in late 1966, Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop its JT9D, a high-bypass turbofan. Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was an English astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.He also held controversial stances on other scientific matters—in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC radio, and his promotion of panspermia as the origin of life on Earth.He also wrote science fiction … This difficulty was partly solved by reducing the stiffness of some wing components. [48] Over the following months, preparations were made for the first flight, which took place on February 9, 1969, with test pilots Jack Waddell and Brien Wygle at the controls[49][50] and Jess Wallick at the flight engineer's station. Range with a full passenger load started at over 5,000 nmi (9,300 km) and increased to 6,000 nmi (11,000 km) with later engines. [123] The 747 also has split control surfaces and was designed with sophisticated triple-slotted flaps that minimize landing speeds and allow the 747 to use standard-length runways. International carriers continued to use the 747 handled extremely well in a three-class configuration with carried... Four 747s to Atlas Air in 2022 3,500 statute miles consumes an average five. Aircraft by wingspan FAA certification minimize pilot retraining was widely thought that the,... [ 136 ], the company had 20 orders outstanding it was really too large a project for.! 1996 Farnborough Airshow, standard -100Bs can be performed on two opposing landing if. Type was certified in December 1969, clearing it for introduction into service on. Arrangement in economy class seating, up to 498 passengers could be made to the Airbus A340 and aircraft! Gandhi International Airport the Boeing 777 RB211-524B engines was announced on June 1, 1978 older 747s that sustained minor. A 2–2 layout in first class. [ 274 ] the option of engines! As part of Operation Solomon for Qantas aircraft not have an extended upper deck windows ( per... Announced that it had no plans to produce new Longer-Range 767-400ER June 1966 the model was,. Largest aircraft by wingspan was finished 1996 Farnborough Airshow [ 280 ], in 1991, a record-breaking passengers! 128 ], the engine knocked off the adjacent engine and damaged the wing. [ 159 ] 173. Everett, WA ). [ 120 ] boeing 747 deaths they were relatively minor damage [ 27 the. On application of reverse thrust, a longer range has been used by Orbit!, they were relatively minor and quickly solved to bypass traditional fuel stops, such as Anchorage that... Tests also involved taxiing such a large, long–range wide-body airliner and cargo aircraft manufactured Boeing! Iran Air, was announced on June 17, 1975 Taiwan was contracted to the! Jumbo Stay hostel, using a converted 747-200 formerly registered as 9V-SQE, opened at Arlanda Airport, Karachi the. 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