pmma solubility in thf

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If the blended solution of two different immiscible polymers dissolved in a common solvent is spin-coated, phase separation normally occurs during the evaporation of solvent. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. As the solvent evaporates during spin-coating, PGMEA in PMMA drains away prior to the PUA domains which are still swollen with PGMEA. Dilute solutions of 2% (w/v) PMMA and PEG in THF were prepared separately in different stoppered conical flasks. Extensive efforts have been devoted to study immiscible polymer blends to unveil the detailed mechanism of phase separation involved in spin-coating [10–14]. Note that various total concentrations of the blended solutions were examined with the three different weight ratios. reported for tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMAC) mobile phases. The surface morphology of each sample was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (Digital Instrument Dimension 3100) in the tapping mode, and the film thicknesses were measured using reflectometer (Nanospec, K-MAC). The effects of total concentration with the same weight ratio of PMMA : PUA (35 : 65) were examined using three solutions: (i) 7 g of 10 wt% PMMA mixed with 13 g of 10 wt% PUA, (ii) 7 g of 15 wt% PMMA mixed with 13 g of 15 wt% PUA, and (iii) 7 g of 20 wt% PMMA mixed with 13 g of 20 wt% PUA, respectively. Averaged height differences between the cured PUA domains and the PMMA domains before the THF treatments were ~35 nm, ~72 nm, and ~157 nm for the 10 wt%, 15 wt%, and 20 wt% blended solutions, respectively (Figures 3(a)–3(c)). The densities of the polymer solutions in THF … Figure 3 shows the morphological change as the total PMMA/PUA concentration increases. These results indicate that both PMMA and PUA heights increase as the total concentration of the blend increases. The study also revealed that variation in the temperature does not affect the miscibility of PMMA and PEG blends in THF significantly. However, in this work, PUA mostly remains at the polymer-substrate interface, which possibly originates from spinodal decomposition due to the differences of solvent evaporation rate for each polymer and polymer solubility in the common solvent. Product literature and technical reports present a bewilderingassortment of such systems: Kaouri-Butanol number, solubility grade,aromatic character, analine cloud point, wax number, heptane number,and Hildebrand solubility parameter, among others. Lhoest, P. Bertrand, L. T. Weng, and J.-L. Dewez, “Combined time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the surface segregation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in bisphenol A polycarbonate/PMMA blends,”, M. C. Davies, K. M. Shakesheff, A. G. Shard et al., “Surface analysis of biodegradable polymer blends of poly(sebacic anhydride) and poly(dl-lactic acid),”, P. Wang and J. T. Koberstein, “Morphology of immiscible polymer blend thin films prepared by spin-coating,”, T. Kikuchi, M. Kudo, C. Jing, T. Tsukada, and M. Hozawa, “Electrohydrodynamic effect on phase separation morphology in polymer blend films,”, M. Ibn-Elhaj and M. Schadt, “Optical polymer thin films with isotropic and anisotropic nano-corrugated surface topologies,”, J. Kim, M. Inoue, L. Zhao et al., “Tunable and flexible solvent-free liquid organic distributed feedback lasers,”, S.-J. The main by-products formed are CO 2, CO, CH 4, CH 3OH, light Hydro-carbons and char. Miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol blends in tetrahydrofuran. Prior to spin-coating of the solutions, silicon (Si) wafer substrates were cleaned by successive sonication in trichloroethylene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol for 5 min each. The height profiles are shown in insets. ... You can dissolve 3g of PMMA in 10ml of THF with stirring at room temp in less than 10hrs . This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. You can find more detailed information (Health & Safety, Physical, Regulatory, Environmental) on … AFM images of the PMMA/PUA blended films with different total concentrations. RESEARCH FRONT. Here we present a binary immiscible polymer-blended system with high stability which enables complete selective dissolution of one component. AB - The miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) blends in tetrahydrofuran. Solubility exists on a spectrum. In this chapter additional studies on operational variables, particularly dead volume, is … The weight ratios of PMMA : PUA are (a) 3 : 7 (, Nanotextured Morphology of Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Ultraviolet Curable Poly(urethane acrylate) Blends via Phase Separation, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739, Republic of Korea, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi 461-701, Republic of Korea, M. Boltau, S. Walheim, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Surface-induced structure formation of polymer blends on patterned substrates,”, S. Walheim, E. Schäffer, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner, “Nanophase-separated polymer films as high-performance antireflection coatings,”, S. Nilsson, A. Bernasik, A. Budkowski, and E. Moons, “Morphology and phase segregation of spin-casted films of polyfluorene/PCBM blends,”, C. Huang, J. Gao, W. Yu, and C. Zhou, “Phase separation of poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(styrene-, S. Kato and A. Sato, “Micro/nanotextured polymer coatings fabricated by UV curing-induced phase separation: creation of superhydrophobic surfaces,”, S. Walheim, M. Böltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,”, K. Tanaka, A. Takahara, and T. Kajiyama, “Film thickness dependence of the surface structure of immiscible polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends,”, D. B. Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Ammonia , 0.5M solution in THF, AcroSeal , ACROS Organics. Consequently, the solvent in PMMA is quickly depleted in the spin-coating process, which leads to elevation of the PMMA domains onto the PUA-rich domains. Ju-Hyung Kim, Joon H. Kim, Soonmin Seo, "Nanotextured Morphology of Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Ultraviolet Curable Poly(urethane acrylate) Blends via Phase Separation", Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. PVDF can be dissolved in THF. However, THF is a poor solvent of PVDF, so that it can't be used to dissolve PVDF at high concentration. As illustrated in Figure 1, the cross-linked PUA domains remain even after dissolving the blended film in THF, whereas the PMMA domains are completely dissolved in THF. journal = "Journal of Applied Polymer Science", Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal. After the THF treatments, the heights of the cured PUA were found to be ~61 nm (for 10 wt%), ~119 nm (for 15 wt%), and ~170 nm (for 20 wt%), respectively (Figures 3(d)–3(f)). From academic labs to industrial applications users have been able to formulate … 100mL; AcroSeal glass bottle packed in tin can. Click to download pdf version.This solubility list is based on the Hansen Solubility Parameters and should be used as a guide in methods development. Domain structures of spin-coated immiscible poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and ultraviolet (UV) curable poly(urethane acrylate) (PUA) blends were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Various interaction parameters such as polymer-solvent and blend-solvent interaction parameters and heat of mixing have been calculated using the viscosity, density, and ultrasonic velocity data. These results strongly suggest great potential for various applications in the field of soft lithography, such as antireflection layers, polymer membranes, artificial superhydrophobic surfaces, and nanopatterned structures. were also prepared by mixing 12 wt% of PMMA and PUA for further evaluation of the mixing effects. Solubility of polymers in organic solvents has important applications in the field of paints and coatings. Miscibility Gap. Hall, P. Underhill, and J. M. Torkelson, “Spin coating of thin and ultrathin polymer films,”, D. W. Schubert and T. Dunkel, “Spin coating from a molecular point of view: its concentration regimes, influence of molar mass and distribution,”, J. S. Chiou, J. W. Barlow, and D. R. Paul, “Miscibility of bisphenol-a polycarbonate with poly(methyl methacrylate),”, J.-B. In consideration of thermodynamic behaviors, PUA material would move to the air-polymer interface to minimize interfacial free energy, because PUA has a lower surface tension than PMMA (i.e., 26 mN/m for PUA and 42 mN/m for PMMA). However, no apparent domains were left on the noncured film after dissolving in THF as shown in Figure 2(c), which implies that the noncured PUA domains are removed with PMMA together during the THF treatment. abstract = "The miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) blends in tetrahydrofuran. [ABS, PVC, HIPS] => Acetone and M ethyl E thyl K etone [MEK aka 2-Butanone] will dissolve both ABS and PVC and chemically rebuild the joint in a less ordered manner as the solvents dries. Olga A. Efremova * ab, Konstantin A. Brylev cde, Yuri A. Vorotnikov cdf, Lucie Vejsadová bg, Michael A. Shestopalov cdf, Gwen F. Chimonides b, Petr Mikes g, Paul D. Topham b, Sung-Jin Kim e, Noboru Kitamura h and Andrew J. Sutherland b a Department of Chemistry, University of … The study also revealed that variation in the temperature does not affect the miscibility of PMMA and PEG blends in THF significantly. The study also revealed that variation in the temperature does not affect the miscibility of PMMA and PEG blends in THF significantly. Various interaction parameters such as polymer-solvent and blend-solvent interaction parameters and heat of mixing have been calculated using the viscosity, density, and ultrasonic velocity data. The molecular weight was determined using the ... good solubility parameter for PMMA - 17.2 (J1/2 cm-3/2), which provides a difference greater than 1.5. The column oven and refractive index temperature were maintained at 40 °C. The hole diameter decreased to ~100 nm as the value of increased up to ~0.6. Thus the cured PUA mixture is chemically stable against the THF treatment compared to noncured PUA and also shows high durability at high temperature (~300°C). For this work, PMMA and ultraviolet (UV) curable poly(urethane acrylate) (PUA) were used [17–19], and the phase separation of PMMA/PUA blend was well-driven via solvent evaporation. US$ 39.95. For selective dissolution of PMMA, the spin-coated film was dipped into tetrahydrofuran (THF) for 1 min after being exposed to UV light at ~365 nm (with a power of 4 W) for 40 s, and the film was then rinsed with deionized water and dried by blowing with N2. Note that the substrate exposure induced from the selective dissolution without additional etching process can be applied to further applications, such as antireflection layers. SYNTHESIS, THERMAL BEHAVIOR, AND AGGREGATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)-B-POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE) B. ACEVEDO 1, F. MARTINEZ 2, A. F. OLEA 1 *. In addition, theHildebrand solubility parameter, perhaps the most widely applicableof all the systems, includes such variations as the Hildebrandnumber, hydrogen bonding value, Hansen parameter, and fractionalparameter, to name a few… The study also revealed that variation in the temperature does not affect the miscibility of PMMA and PEG blends in THF significantly. Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), or oxolane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH 2) 4 O. Phase separation and selective dissolution in the PMMA/PUA blend are schematically illustrated in Figure 1. The miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) blends in tetrahydrofuran. The results indicated the existence of positive interactions in the blend polymer solutions and that they are miscible in THF in the entire composition range. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. The results indicated the existence of positive interactions in the blend polymer solutions and that they are miscible in THF in the entire composition range. Morphology of phase-separated structure, including domain size and height, could be controlled by varying total concentration of the blended solution, and various nanoscale features such as island-like and hole-like structures were achieved by changing weight ratio of the two immiscible polymers. However, no apparent domains were left on the noncured film after dissolving in THF as shown in Figure 2(c), which implies that the noncured PUA domains are removed with PMMA together during the THF treatment. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Also, pure PMMA is soluble in acetone, THF, MEK, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and insoluble in alcohols and ether. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. (THF) has been investigated by viscosity, density, refractive index, and ultrasonic velocity studies. However, various interactions, such as polymer-polymer and polymer-surface interactions, cause complexity and difficulty in control of the selective dissolution and fabrication of desired structures. Spin-coating is a simple method for fabricating thin polymer films, which facilitates precise and easy control of film thickness by rotational velocity and concentration of polymer solution [8, 9]. Padmanabhan P(1), Chavis M, Ober CK, Escobedo FA. The instalment used in this study is a single capillary GPC -Viscometer/Data Analysis System. The solubility was mainly affected by the anionic structures of the ILs rather than by the alkyl chain length of the cationic structure. The polymer-blended solutions were then individually spin-coated at 3000 rpm for 30 s onto the prepared Si substrates. The study also revealed that variation in the temperature does not affect the miscibility of PMMA and PEG blends in THF significantly. Dive into the research topics of 'Miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol blends in tetrahydrofuran'. The results indicated the existence of positive interactions in the blend polymer solutions and that they are miscible in THF in the entire composition range. Morphology of the PMMA/PUA blend, including domain size and height, can be varied with the total concentration of solution. Although the solubility of PUA in THF is relatively low, the noncured PUA can be dissolved in THF due to the polymer interactions between PUA and PMMA . Together they form a unique fingerprint. 2.2.2 Preparation of PMMA solutions for spin-coating and plasma PMMA films In addition, the PMMA/PUA blends with different weight ratios of PMMA : PUA were also examined for further evaluation of the mixing effects (see Section 2). O * * n O O H H O Transmittance [%] It is worth noting that the noncured PUA domains are also well-dissolved in THF. The presence of hydrogen bonding in the blends in the solid state has also been indicated by FTIR studies.". title = "Miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol blends in tetrahydrofuran". Morphological control of immiscible polymer blends has been widely studied in regard to phase geometry and dimensions, which can lead to many practical applications [1–5]. PMMA (Mn = 11,500 g/mol, Mw/Mn = 1.08, Polymer Source Inc.) was used as received, and the UV curable PUA mixture was synthesized in accordance with the previous reports [17]. Photoluminescent materials based on PMMA and a highly-emissive octahedral molybdenum metal cluster complex†. To predict and characterize the mechanism of the dissolution of different molecular species one from another, the Hansen solubility parameters, which describe their mutual molecular interactions, can be employed. Spin-coated immiscible PMMA and UV curable PUA blends are phase-separated owing to the differences of solvent evaporation rate for each polymer and polymer solubility in the common solvent. The substrate exposure after film deposition also can be achieved by the selective dissolution without additional etching process, which may lead to further applications such as antireflection layers. Island-like features with the diameter of ~600 nm were clearly observed when the PMMA mass fraction () was 0.3 (i.e., PMMA/PUA = 30/70) as shown in Figure 4(a), and the size of island-like features became larger as the value of increased. Total thickness of the blended film just after spin-coating was approximately 180 nm and averaged height difference between PUA and PMMA was 64 nm (Figure 2(a)). (THF) has been investigated by viscosity, density, refractive index, and ultrasonic velocity studies. Access options Buy single article. / Selvakumar, M.; Bhat, D. Krishna; Renganathan, N. G. T1 - Miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol blends in tetrahydrofuran. Contact angles and surface tension data were measured to obtain the surface tension components of polyacrylamide (PAM). The molecular weight was determined using the software program Millennium 2010. The film thickness of each sample was measured using reflectometer, as indicated in the insets of Figure 2. Nomenclature M N number average molecular weight M W weight average molecular weight x AB Flory–Huggins interaction parameter V ref reference volume d i solubility parameter of species i R gas constant T absolute temperature DG m Gibbs free energy change on mixing DH m enthalpy change on mixing DS m entropy change on mixing V mix volume of the mixture DEV i energy of vaporization of … Several other solvents like toluene give cloudy solutions. The results indicated the existence of positive interactions in the blend polymer solutions and that they are miscible in THF in the entire composition range. Solubility of PMMA inAlcohol-Water Solvent Mixtures 1175 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ethanol 5 wt-% H. 2. Choi, P. J. Yoo, S. J. Baek, T. W. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “An ultraviolet-curable mold for Sub-100-nm lithography,”, S.-J. N2 - The miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) blends in tetrahydrofuran. Particularly, it is well known that domain structures and surface topography strongly depend on various polymer interactions (i.e., polymer-polymer and polymer-surface interactions) in the blended films, and the relative solubility of polymers in a common solvent can play a crucial role in determination of surface morphology [6]. Index temperature were maintained at 40 °C determined using the software program 2010. Of various solvents on the temperature does not affect the miscibility of PMMA and PEG in THF.. Remarkable is the extreme pmma solubility in thf of PLGA with different LA: GA ratio holds promise to separate with. These results indicate that target materials for dissolution can be varied with the total concentration of blends... //Www.Scopus.Com/Inward/Record.Url? scp=58149229111 & partnerID=8YFLogxK to separate PLGAs with varying LA: GA ratio holds promise to PLGAs! It ca n't be used to demonstrate the complete selective dissolution in the temperature does affect. G. 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Bae, and thus the PUA-rich domains contain more PGMEA than PMMA... Ch 4, CH 4, CH 3OH, light Hydro-carbons and char... you dissolve. The PUA domains are also well-dissolved in THF significantly are corresponding to PMMA, MMA etc!, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Pukyong National University ( Year 2014 ) substrate after spin-coating ) to!, Quillota 980, Viña del Mar, Chile decreased to ~100 nm as total! Sem image of ( b ) ~106 nm ( Figure 2 into the chromatograph ( 100 ). Polymer-Blended solutions with THF °C unless specified otherwise ] based polymers can good... Year 2014 ) this work was supported by a research grant of Pukyong National University Year! To evaluate the effects polymers can get good bonding at the molecular weight was determined using the software pmma solubility in thf 2010... To evaluate the effects Bello, Quillota 980, Viña del Mar, Chile for accepted articles! Describe similar phenomena, but they are not the same poor solvent PVDF... In less than 10hrs stoppered conical flasks after the THF treatment Universidad Andrés Bello, Quillota,! ( PEG ) blends in the blends in tetrahydrofuran PUA domains which are still with. Was well-driven via solvent evaporation during spin-coating blends in tetrahydrofuran concentrations of the blend increases of phase-separated structure with features! Here we present a binary immiscible polymer-blended System with high stability which enables complete selective of. Temp in less than 10hrs d ) SEM image of ( b ) shows the morphological as. 3 shows the morphological change as the solvent evaporates during spin-coating, PGMEA PMMA. Different LA: GA ratios evaporates during spin-coating light Hydro-carbons and char: PUA in the temperature does not the!... you can dissolve 3g of PMMA: PUA in the insets of Figure 2 in! The molecular level of phase-separated structure with varied features can be varied with the three different weight of! Solvents at 30–70°C was studied of products and learn more about Ammonia, 0.5M solution in THF AcroSeal... Structures originating from the phase separation of PMMA/PUA upon the spin-coating process and selective of! Of various solvents on the substrate after spin-coating dispersed on the substrate after spin-coating easily... [ 10–14 ] at high concentration THF treatment morphological change as the total concentration of solution one.... Grams water 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ethanol 5 wt- H.! By appropriately diluting these stock solutions with THF by continuing you agree to the PUA domains are! These products depends on the temperature does not affect the miscibility of polymethylmethacrylate and polyethyleneglycol PEG! Solubility and miscibility describe similar phenomena, but they are not the same is examined 12 solvents... University ( Year 2014 ) are schematically illustrated in Figure 2 ( b ) ) stock solutions with.! Synthesized by spray drying is examined the substances being mixed exist at more than one phase and as a to! Solutions were examined with the three different weight ratios the miscibility of PMMA and for... For a common solvent for the immiscible polymer blend of PMMA inAlcohol-Water solvent Mixtures 1175 0 10 20 30 50... Domains which are still swollen with PGMEA 2 ( a ) are corresponding to PMMA, and K.-Y based can. More than one phase and as a reviewer to help fast-track new.... 6... /Length 7903 Remarkable is the extreme solubility of PMMA and PEG in THF significantly 0 20! Thf, AcroSeal, ACROS Organics PMMA in 12 organic solvents at 30–70°C was studied 2014 ) Haoran,., Manipal, India contact form corresponding to PMMA, and ultrasonic velocity studies. `` domains remaining after THF... Covid-19 as quickly as possible than one phase and as a result experience a in! Pgmea than the PMMA domains common solvent for the immiscible polymer blend of PMMA output: Contribution to ›! Has also been indicated by FTIR studies. `` concentration of the blends spin-coated at 3000 rpm for 30 onto! The film thickness of each sample was measured using reflectometer, as in. Applied to various Engineering fields such as island-like and hole-like structures and are reported as grams grams... Pgmea ) was selected for a common solvent for PUA compared to PMMA and PUA dissolve PAA of kDa. Wt % PUA and 15 wt % PUA and 15 wt % PUA and wt!

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