We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Available from: Sources of heavy metal exposure to humans, Route of exposure, bio-uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in humans, Health effects of heavy metal toxicity in humans, Biochemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Godfrey Okoye University, Nigeria, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Bio-resource Development Centre, National Biotechnology and Development Agency (NABDA), Nigeria, Department of Biotechnology, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), Nigeria, Department of Biological Sciences, Godfrey Okoye University, Nigeria. For example, the tumor suppressor gene-coded DNA was suppressed when arsenic was bound to methyl-transferase . Others can enter the body by inhalation while others such as lead can be absorbed through the skin. Food chain polluted with toxic metals and metalloids is a significant path of human exposure and thus may cause a number of hazardous effects on human health. In the human body, these heavy metals are transported and compartmentalized into body cells and tissues binding to proteins, nucleic acids destroying these macromolecules and disrupting their cellular functions. Also, AP-1 and NF-κB family of transcription factors are involved in both cell proliferation and apoptosis, and also regulate p53. 2020 Dec 16;9(12):1781. doi: 10.3390/plants9121781. The various health effects of some heavy metals will be highlighted below. Heavy metals have been used in many different areas for thousands of years. To do so, a well owner must be aware of their well's potential for contamination and the possible health effects those potential contaminants can have. Children are particularly susceptible to lead exposure due to high gastrointestinal uptake and the permeable blood-brain barrier. However, there are no studies so far that have been able to show any associations between amalgam fillings and ill health. Heavy metal and human health 1. NIH Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018 Jan;119(1):157-184. doi: 10.1002/jcb.26234. Heavy metals are naturally present in our environment. Olmedo P, Pla A, Hernández AF, Barbier F, Ayouni L, Gil F. Environ Int. As such, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the United States has reduced the tolerable amount of lead in children’s blood from 25 to 10 μg/dL and recommended universal screening of blood lead for all children. The order of heavy metal in terms of their efficacy in folding inhibition is mercury > cadmium > lead and correlates with the relative stability of their monodentate complexes with imidazole, thiol and carboxylate groups in proteins . Recently in the United States, the tolerable amount of arsenic in drinking water is 50 μg/liter but there is much concern of lowering this standard dose of population exposures to arsenic as the present dose is believed to increase the risk for cancer. Studies have supported with evidence that ROS generation by lead is key in altering chromosomal structure and sequence . The Cu2+ in the presence of biological reductants such as glutathione (GSH) or ascorbic acid can be reduced to Cu+ which is capable of catalyzing the decomposition of H2O2 to form OH• via the Fenton reaction  as shown below. Blood levels in children should be reduced below the levels so far considered acceptable, recent data indicating that there may be neurotoxic effects of lead at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. The mechanism of lead-induced carcinogenic process is postulated to induce DNA damage, disrupt DNA repair system and cellular tumor regulatory genes through the generation of ROS . 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