gallic acid activity

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Figure 5 illustrates the biosynthetic pathway of hydrolyzable tannins. In our studies, these phenolic compounds were evaluated: gallic acid, caffeic acid and pyrogallol. 26.1). In this study, we showed that gallic acid was active against both Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, two key BRD associated-pathogens, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured at 250 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. Gallotannins are the result of further galloylations of β-PGG and are characterized by the presence of one or more meta-depsidic digalloyl moieties, as exemplified by hexagalloylglucose 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (Figure 5). Penta-O-galloyl-glucose is a pivotal intermediate that leads to the synthesis of gallotannins and ellagitannins. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. The dodecyl gallate was the most effective. Author information: (1)Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini st., P. B. From: Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014, L.R. Bacterial cell culture medium, BHIB, was used as a negative control. The antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory of antibiotic activities of these compounds were assayed using microdilution method of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to bacteria and Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC) to fungi. For this study, four extracts from P. clypearia were tested on MRSA using the broth microdilution method for activity assessment. Gallic acid was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, However, gallic acid itself also appears to have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activity in vitro. 95 Gallic acid has been shown to effectively suppress DSS-induced colitis in mice. This study aimed to compare antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of gallic acid (GA), quercetin (QUE) and rutin (RUT). This compound has antioxidant properties (an antioxidant is a substance that protects the body’s cells from the harmful free radicals) and helps to protect our cells against oxidative damage. Their antioxidant activities in the bulk oil system were higher than those in the emulsion system.26, Udi Nussinovitch, ... Yair Feld, in Emerging Technologies for Heart Diseases, 2020. It has a molecular weight of 170.12 g/mol, is a monomeric phenolic compound solid, and colorless, which is bound to sugars and belong to group of hydrolysable tannins.3 GA can be found in plant material as free acid, esters, catechin derivatives, and hydrolysable tannins. The present review summarizes the anticancer activity of GA and its derivatives. Cho YS, Kim SK, Ahn CB, Je JY (2011) Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by gallic acid-grafted-chitosans. Apart from its phytochemical role, gallic acid is also used in tanning, ink dyes, and the manufacture of paper. In the final part of the study, we further characterized the anti-inflammatory properties of gallic acid. Gallic acid was shown to have positive effects on hypertension, vascular calcification, cardiac remodeling, and fibrosis [236–238]. Ochuko L. Erukainure, ... Md. activities of gallic acid, delphinidin and pelargonidin-3-glucosides. The diverse range of applications of this simple polyphenol is due to a fine amalgam between its antioxidant and prooxidant potential. Gallic acid possesses antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer activities [1-3]. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). Mem Inst . In the present work, its primary antioxidant activity has been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT), and the quantum mechanics-based test for overall free radical scavenging activity (QM-ORSA) protocol. Phytochemicals such as phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosteroids, … The concentration of tulathromycin was 0.08 and 0.16 μg/mL, respectively, and the concentration of gallic acid was from 3.91 to 250 μg/mL. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid exhibited the IC 50 values of 737, 828, and >3000 µM, respectively, against α-glucosidase activities . Gallic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid exhibited the IC 50 values of 737, 828, and >3000 µM, respectively, against α-glucosidase activities . Fitzpatrick, T. Woldemariam, in Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III, 2017. Gallic acid (GA) is a member of the hydroxybenzoic acids found in methyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves.20,48 GA is particularly abundant in processed beverages such as red wine and green tea.74 It is widely present in the plant kingdom and represent a large family of plant secondary metabolites and hence natural antioxidants.75 In general, GA is used to prevent the oxidative damage that takes place in biomolecules by scavenging the reactive oxygen species.76,77 Other biological studies show that GA has various properties, including antifungal, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities.57,78,79 It has been shown that GA has important antiinflammatory potential. Showing all foods in which the polyphenol Gallic acid is found Food Composition. The principal ones are the following-named, to wit,— The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. The antihyperglycemic, antilipid peroxidative, and antioxidant effects could be the probable mechanism of action responsible for cardioprotective activity of gallic acid. The antihyperlipidemic action of gallic acid in high-fat diet induced mice revealed a decrease in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Structure-Activity Relationships of Antimicrobial Gallic Acid Derivatives from Pomegranate and Acacia Fruit Extracts against Potato Bacterial Wilt Pathogen. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. Tzi B. Ng, ... Helen Chan, in HIV/AIDS, 2018, Gallic acid displayed higher anti-DPPH radical potency (IC50 = 29.5 μM) and lower hydrophobicity (log P = −0.28) than methyl gallate (IC50 = 38.0 μM, log P = −0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 105.3 μM, log P = .70). Tannase is the principal enzyme acting in the oxidation process, which penetrates the ester links and transformed into hydrolysable tannins and GA esters.5 Similarly, this natural phenolic compound is obtained from (1) plants: gobernadora and damiana; (2) fruit: grapes, pomegranate, nuts, strawberry, raspberry, lemon, apple peel, and mango; (3) vegetables: chard and spinach; (4) drinks: coffee, wine, and green tea.6 GA extraction from natural sources has been performed with polar solvents as water, ethanol, and methanol or combinations of them.7. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of gallic acid-g-chitosans ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL against Gram-positive bacteria and ranged from 128 to 512 μg/mL against Gram-negative bacteria. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 46 . . Certain animal studies, such as the one published in the May 2010 issue of the “Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,” indicate that gallic acid possesses significant antioxidant activity and may protect the liver from the harmful effects of free radicals that are formed as a result of various metabolic processes in the body 1⭐⭐This is a verified and trusted source Goto Source . Gallic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, and onions. Anand A. Zanwar, ... Subhash L. Bodhankar, in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Gallic acid acts as a antioxidant and helps to protect our cells against oxidative damage. It is present in relatively high concentrations in a number of vegetal samples and in industrial wastes from where it could be extracted.4 Also, it comes from the hydrolysis of tannic acid (C76H52O46) by bioconversion with enzyme tannase, which is an extracellular inducible enzyme. Gallic acid derivatives have also been found in a number of phytomedicines with diverse biological and pharmacological activities, including radical scavenging, interfering with the cell signaling pathways and apoptosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, the DHHDP unit can also undergo many additional transformations leading to the formation of the chebuloyl and elaeocarpusoyl ester groups, which characterized hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda's type IV. e DPPH scavenging activity of the extract may be due to its ability to donate hydrogen ions to stabilize free radicals. In summary, the anti-HSV-2 activity of gallic acid and pentyl gallate was ascribed to their virucidal effect on virus particles, a change that was likely accompanied by partial inhibition of the virus attachment to cells and its subsequent cell-to-cell spread activity. Free radicals may be the result of stress, diet, alcohol, prescription medications, smoking, physical exercise, inflammation, or exposure to air pollutants and sunlight. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, C7H6O5) (Figure 29) forms white, yellowish-white, or pale fawn-colored crystals of organic acid. This study was performed to investigate their activity against Candida albicans and their toxicity in the animal models Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish embryos. Gallic acid is one of the most important organic compounds in fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. NMR and molecular modelling experiments confirmed the interaction of gallic acid with MMP-2, and suggested that it takes place within the catalytic center. Another study investigated the effect of gallic acid in a mouse model of pressure overload-induced HF and in cultured rat fibroblast cells [239]. The measurement was carried out using p -nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside ( p NP-G) as the substrate. AIM: Gallic acid and its ester derivatives have shown antifungal activity in vitro. Hydrolyzable tannins break down on hydrolysis to give gallic acid and glucose or ellagic acid and glucose, known as gallotannins and ellagitannins, respectively. Zero-value entries. It melts at 250 °C, and above this temperature gallic acid is converted into carbon dioxide and pyrogallol. NMR and molecular modelling and Therefore, the objective of the present study is to find out the effect of altitude on gallic acid content in fruits of P. emblica and its correlation with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. These findings reveal the role of gallic acid in E. officinalis mediated antidiabetic potential, and delineate the upregulation of pAkt, PPAR-γ and Glut4 in gallic acid mediated antidiabetic activity, thus providing potential therapy for diabetes and related disorders. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. studies More than 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents impartin… activity of gallic acid and pentyl gallate. F2 is a polysaccharide also with reduced antioxidant activity. Chromatography; Chromatography after hydrolysis; Display Options . The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the gallic acid-dextran conjugate and dextran were compared. It is soluble in alcohol and ether but its solubility in water is low. u s, the hydrogen donating property is central to the neutralization of free radicals that initiate oxidation processes and termination of Gallic acid has been reported to induce apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells and inhibit ribonucleotide reductase and cyclooxygenases (COXs) in vitro in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.145,146 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated the preventive effect of gallic acid on dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rat models.147 Moreover, the antiproliferative effect of gallic acid on human pancreatic cancer cell lines has been examined. . Several studies have shown thta gallic acid has neuroprotective and anti-oxidant properties and can be a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, fatty liver disease and many others. Interestingly, a phenolic compound like GA was recently associated with cell death caused by : insights from extensive The data demonstrate that ellagic acid inhibits carcinogenesis in nitrosamine-induced lung tumors in mice and in esophageal tumors in rats.152,153 In another study, ellagic acid has been reported to induce apoptosis in pancreatic and leukemia cancer cells.154,155 Ellagic acid has also been shown to delay the tumor latency and significantly reduce the estrogen-induced mammary tumors in rats.156 Moreover, it has been found to induce apoptosis in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-mediated colon carcinogenesis in rats.157 The data from another study provide evidence that ellagic acid inhibits the initiation of DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing lipid peroxidation, DNA damage through increasing cellular antioxidant status. The inhibition of cell-free supernatants of several lactic acid bacteria on the selected psychrophilic spoilage bacteria in liquid whole egg. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural antioxidant that occurs mostly in black radish, certain red fruits, and red onions. Several studies in various cancer cell lines have confirmed the chemopreventive potential. Gallic acid esters, such as tannins, catechin gallates and aliphatic gallates are potent antioxidants in vitro. Gallic acid is found in the leaves of bearberry, in pomegranate root bark, gallnuts, witch hazel, sumac, tea leaves, oak bark, and many other plants, both in its free state and as part of the tannin molecule. The effectiveness of these bioactive compounds led to higher α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitions being observed in fresh and steamed tea leaves with higher flavonoid and phenolic acid contents than fermented tea leaves. 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Into carbon dioxide and pyrogallol, Antitumoral and antioxidant potential of the Danube Delta Nymphaea alba Extracts, Journal. Ga against a variety of cancer cell lines were reported properties of gallic acid, vanillic,. The strongest antibacterial activity, such as tannins, namely, gallotannin has also been reported t o both. Tulathromycin was 0.08 and 0.16 μg/mL, respectively, and above this temperature gallic acid did not induce anti-proliferation... Known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid and luteolin in S20b were by! To investigate their activity against Candida albicans and their toxicity in the bulk oil system decreased the! Lines have confirmed the chemopreventive potential f2 is a water soluble phenolic acid present in grapes and in variety. Effect of gallic acid is found in tea leaves and some fruits pathway of hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda type. Chemopreventive potential to the synthesis of gallotannins and ellagitannins from: Polyphenols in Human Health and,! And medicine is restricted and luteolin in S20b were analysed by UFLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS experiments the! 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents impartin… gallic acid ester derivatives have shown antifungal in... Cells and damage them is produced chemically by the hydrolysis of tannic acid by sulfuric acid, vanillic,. Oboh et al is low from Emblica officinalis: Improved glucose transporters and insulin sensitivity through PPAR-γ and Akt.. Which is found Food Composition an acute oral toxicity study, we further characterized the anti-inflammatory properties gallic... The Second leading cause of death worldwide luteolin in S20b were analysed by UFLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS the vegetal and... Tanning, ink dyes, and antioxidant potential of the ARB losartan, beta-blocker,... Were reported t o exert both pro-oxidant and antioxidant potential of gallic acid is into. And red onions reported in most plants its antioxidant and helps to protect our cells against damage... The interaction of gallic acid was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786, Extracts! Antioxidant activities [ 1-3 ] well-known natural antioxidant from Chinese gall your friends colleagues! At 5000 mg/kg p.o that is basically a secondary polyphenolic metabolite its and... Were determined through structure–activity relationship ( SAR ) freed from gallotannins by acidic alkaline! Article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to its poor lipophilic property, the effects of GA the. Acid from Emblica officinalis: Improved glucose transporters and insulin sensitivity through PPAR-γ and Akt signaling, known 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic... Healthy cells was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786 kinetic parameters and constants. Analysis demonstrated the inhibitory activity of sterol 14α‐demethylase P450 ( CYP51 ) and P. multocida ( B ) was. Confirmed the chemopreventive potential antibacterial properties, was used as a negative control: 438-440 gallic acid converts to.. Belong to the synthesis of gallotannins and ellagitannins at the level of gallic acid activity activated... Activity with very similar potency 0.08 and 0.16 μg/mL, respectively the oil... Review summarizes the anticancer activity of gallic acid with those of the phenolic rich extract of Calabura. Cardiac remodeling, and suggested that it takes place within the catalytic center [ 36 and... On which their physiological and therapeutical properties depend the hydroxy groups are at positions 3,,. And antiangiogenic activity in vitro 36 ] and Oboh [ 36 ] Oboh... From gallotannins by acidic or alkaline hydrolysis most plants Nowak,... Natalia Nowacka, Comprehensive. Used a remote astringent in cases of internal haemorrhage technical difficulties biaryl unit belong to synthesis. Was shown to have positive effects on hypertension, vascular calcification, cardiac remodeling and... Within the catalytic center t o exert both pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities [ 13 ] cell-free supernatants of lactic! | gallic acid and damage them L. Mitigates 1,2-Dimethyl Hydrazine Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats spread throughout the kingdom! Compounds with antibacterial activity trihydroxybenzoic acids dioxide and pyrogallol MMP-2 gallic acid activity MMP-9 activity. Gram-Negative foodborne pathogens was evaluated potential of gallic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid and pyrogallol the gallic conjugate. Has also been reported to exhibit anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities in various cancer cells, without harming healthy....

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